Fakultas Ekonomi

Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Samarinda

Pelaku Kegiatan Ekonomi

Di dalam kegiatan ekonomi terdapat beberapa pelaku yang dapat digolongkan menjadi empat, yaitu rumah tangga keluarga, perusahaan, pemerintah dan masyarakat luar negeri.

1. Rumah Tangga Keluarga/ Rumah Tangga Konsumsi

Rumah tangga keluarga/ konsumsi merupakan pelaku kegiatan ekonomi yang menyediakan faktor-faktor produksi kepada pelaku kegiatan ekonomi lain. lebih jelas mengenai faktor produksi

Penyediaan faktor produksi tersebut dimaksudkan guna mendapatkan uang agar dapat memenuhi kebutuhannya. Adapun cara yang dilakukan agar uang tersebut diperoleh adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Menawarkan tanah (alam) yang dimiliki kepada pihak lain untuk menerima balas jasa yang disebut dengan sewa.
  2. Menawarkan sumber tenaga kerja atau sumber daya manusia untuk mendapatkan balas jasa yang disebut dengan upah atau gaji.
  3. Menawarkan modal yang dimiliki untuk mendapatkan bunga sebagai balas jasa.
  4. Menawarkan keahlian atau memakai keahlian yang dimiliki dan balas jasa yang diterima disebut bagian keuntungan atau laba dari perusahaan yang bersangkutan.

Dengan demikian kelompok rumah tangga ini melakukan kegiatan sebagai berikut:

  1. menyediakan dan menyerahkan faktor-faktor produksi
  2. Menerima balas jasa atas faktor produksi yang dimiliki
  3. Mengonsumsi barang dan jasa

2. Rumah Tangga Perusahaan

Rumah tangga perusahaan berperan untuk melakukan kegiatan produksi maupun distribusi dalam kegiatan ekonomi. Kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh kelompok rumah tangga perusahaan meliputi :

  1. Melakukan kegiatan produksi barang dan jasa , dengan cara mengolah faktor produksi yang diterima dari rumah tangga konsumen.
  2. Membayar imbalan atas penggunaan faktor produksi.
  3. Menjual hasil produksi kepada rumah tangga konsumen.
  4. Menerima pembayaran atas penjualan berang dan jasa.

3. Rumah Tangga Pemerintah

Berbeda dengan rumahtangga konsumsi dan perusahaan, pemerintah menjalankan kegiatan ekonomi dengan motif sosial (social economy), yaitu mencari prnghasilan untuk kepentingan umum.

Aktivitas pemerintah dalam kegiatan ekonomi adalah sebagai berikut:

a. mengeluarkan undang-undang, peraturan, dan kebijakan yang bertujuan mengumpulkan dana dari masyarakat, misalnya pajak.

b. Membelanjakan penerimaan negara untuk membeli berbagai kebutuhan pemerintah termasuk menyiapkan sarana dan prasarana yang menyangkut kegiatan umum (public goods).

c. Melakukan kegiatan ekonomi langsung dibawah Badan Usaha Milik Negara. Misalnya PLN, DAMRI, PERTAMINA, dsb.

d. Menjalin hubungan ekonomi dengan negara lain.

Dalam menjalankan kegiatan ekonomi langsung, pemerintah menggunakan Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) untuk mengelolanya. Di Indonesia BUMN dibagi menjadi dua golongan, yaitu:

  1. Perusahaan umum (PERUM)

Badan usaha ini mengusahakan alat-alat vital dan strategis dengan pembiayaan dan keuntungan untuk negara. Contoh: Perum Pegadaian dan Perum Perumnas.

  1. Perusahaan perseroan (PT.)

Badan usaha ini beroperasi seperti layaknya perusahaan swasta, namun modal perseroan tetap disetor dan diusahakan oleh pemerintah. Contoh: PT. Pertamina, PT. PerkebunanXII, PT. Pelni dan sebagainya.

Pemerintah juga bertanggung jawab untuk:

  1. Menyelenggarakan prasarana produksi seperti jalan umum, pos dan komunikasi, pengangkutan umum, kereta api, air minum, sekolah, listrik, rumah sakit, dan lain-lain.
  2. Merangsang produksi melalui pajak dan subsidi.
  3. Mengatur perekonomian dengan peraturan/ pengawasan dan perijinan.
  4. Menyediakan informasi, misalnya melalui bagian statistik harga, riset, dan penerangan.
  5. Mengawasi peredaran jumlah uang.
  6. Menjalankan sendiri beberapa jenis perusahan, terutam,a yang menmyangkut hajat hidup orang banyak.

4. Rumah Tangga Masyarakat Luar Negeri

Masyarakat luar negeri memiliki peranan yang penting dalam kegiatan ekonomi. Selama ini belum ada negara yang mampu hidup mandiri tanpa adanya bantuan dari negara lain. Setiap negara membutuhkan negara lain dalam kehidupan berekonomi. Contohnya dalam jual beli, negara yang satu akan membeli pada negara yang lain dan akan menjual pula pada negara yang lain. Contoh konkritnya indonesia yang membutuhkan komputer buatan amerika dan amerika yang membuthkan tekstil buatan indonesia. Tak hanya itu, kerja sama ekonomi antar negara juga berperan untuk membentu negara yang sedang mengalami nkesulitan dalam perekonomian. Contohnya lahirnya negara G7 yang memberikan pinjaman keuangan pada negara-negara sedang berkembang.

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